In case of lumbar spine surgery, the surgeon who will treat you will decide which type of surgery is necessary. However, almost always the first choice is what the folks call “bloodless surgery, closed surgery or laser surgery” and doctors call “minimal interventional surgery”; procedures like “endoscopic discectomy “, ” laparoscopic discectomy “, “nucleooplasty”, “annuloplasty”, “intradiscal electrotherapy”, “laser discectomy” and “hydrodiscectomy” which can be done with very low risk without anesthesia through small holes in the skin.
Patients whose symptoms cannot be treated by these methods may require to undergo more serious surgeries, like those which are called “open surgery” by the folks; ie, performed under anesthesia and by cutting the patient’s skin. These are “microsurgeries”, which are performed with a small risk through very small incisions in the patient’s skin, and “fusion surgery” which is a much more serious operation in which painful spine bones are mechanically fused to each other.
In recent years, “prosthetic surgery” as called by the folks and “movement preserving surgery” among physicians can also be done by experienced surgeons in developed centers, using instruments allowing some movement; an operation that does not prevent the active life of young people and prevents further issues in later ages.