Yes, there is such a possibility indeed. You may have to undergo a second surgery again after you have surgery. There can be several reasons for such an issue. First, if you do not consider the rules that your surgeon wants you to follow after surgery, you can reset the chances of your surgery to be successful and you may have to be operated upon again. Doctors call this issue as “relapse” or “recurrence”. For example, the recurrence rate after surgery for spine varies between 5-10%, unfortunately same in all surgical methods. Reciprocal herniation may occur in the same disc space but not on the operated side. This refers to a new disc herniation. It is also common for other discs to deteriorate over time and to reveal a new disc herniation.
Second, if you do not take the necessary precautions after surgery and change your lifestyle in the right way, a similar problem may arise adjacent to the region where you were operated upon; ie the disk adjacent to the operated disc can also become herniated. You have six on your neck, eleven on your back, and six more discs on your waist in your waiting list. Doctors call this issue “neighboring segment disease”.
Third, some diseases tend to recur by nature; meaning that despite all the precautions taken, you may still have to undergo surgery again. For example, you may have to undergo surgery three or four times in some brain tumors. Doctors call this issue “recurrences”.
As a fourth possibility, the surgeon may decide to perform surgery to some extent this time and to make the remainder later at a more convenient time, depending on an unexpected occurrence that might be encountered during the surgery. Doctors call this “residue” among themselves. This decision is of course not arbitrary, but a decision taken to protect the health of the patient.